The United Nations International Peace and Security Collection
This multi-volume document collection provides the reader with historical and up-to-date material from the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNIMIL). It includes all resolutions, letters, reports and statements related to the abovementioned peacekeeping missions. This collection is valuable for any reader interested in peacekeeping missions and the process of decision-making. In 1948, the United Nations Security Council authorised the first deployment of UN observers to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbours. Since then, peacekeeping missions have been in operation around the world 64 times. The term 'peacekeeping' cannot be found however in the UN charter, nor can it be defined easily. It is often recognised as a means between traditional methods of peaceful dispute settlement (e.g. negotiation and mediation) and forceful action. The peacekeeping missions have evolved over the years, meeting modern demands of conflict resolution by peaceful means. The missions are no longer just monitoring military observers and army troops, but multidimensional missions to ensure comprehensive peace agreements and sustainable peace.In 1989 civil war broke out in Liberia between the government and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) let by the later president Charles Taylor, claiming more than 150.000 (civilian) lives. To end the conflict, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) made several efforts to ensure peaceful settlement of the conflict, leading to the establishment of the ECOMOG, a military observer group, in 1990. When ECOWAS brokered a peace /agreement in 1993, the UN Security Council established UNOMIL (Nations Observer Mission in Liberia) shortly after the agreement, to ensure compliance with the peace agreement. It was the first UN mission with a peacekeeping operation that had already been established by another organisation. In 1997, Charles Taylor (who is now being tried before the Sierra Leone Special Court) was elected president in 1997. President Taylor announced a policy of reconciliation and national unity, resulting in the end of UNOMIL and the establishment of UNOL (United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia) to assist the Government in the consolidation of peace. Systematic abuse of human rights, exclusion, harassment of political opponents and absence of security prompted fighting again in 2003. Ending UNOL, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1497 (2003), authorising the establishment of UNMIL in order to stabilize the country. The multinational UNMIL is a multidimensional operation closely cooperation with ECOWAS and the African Union. Deployment of troops began in October 2003, reaching full deployment in June 2004. Some 15.000 military troops from some 48 contributing countries are deployed in the Liberia. Beside peacekeeping and maintaining security, one of the major aspects of the process was ensuring democratic transition, allowing for free, transparent, fair and credible elections. In sum, UNMIL has the following tasks: support for implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, protection of UN staff, facilities and civilians, support for humanitarian and human rights assistance, support for security reform, support for implementation of the peace process. UNMIL's mandate was ever since been extended several times.Another conflict where the UN has been involved in is the conflict between Israel and Lebanon, which is supervised by the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) since 1978. After the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) claimed a commando attack in Israel in the late seventies and the Israeli forces invaded Lebanon as a response and occupied part of the country, the Security Council wanted to restore international peace and security by assisting the Lebanese government in restoring effective authority. The increased tension along the Israel-Lebanon border resulted in the authorisation for a peacekeeping mission in March 1978. The decisions and resolutions were made within five days. With resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978) the Security Council calls upon Israel to immediately cease military action in Lebanese territory and to withdraw all forces. The resolutions furthermore brought into being the UNIFIL, whose purpose was among others, the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces, the restoration of peace and security and the assistance of the Lebanese Government in reclaiming effective authority i the region.Matters got worse in 1982, after military action near the Israel-Lebanon border, resulting in the invasion of Lebanon, surrounding Beirut. By then, the role of UNIFIL was limited to the provision of protection and humanitarian assistance. But the mandate for UNIFIL was prolonged nonetheless. Even though Israel partially withdrew from the area in 1985, effective control was still manned by the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) and by the South Lebanon Army (SLA). In 2000 the UN Secretary General received a formal notice from Israel announcing their withdrawal from the area. UNIFIL monitored the withdrawal on a daily basis and provided humanitarian assistance were needed. The so-called Blue Line was established to mark the withdrawal line, including sea and air space; effectively marking the border between both countries again. Over the years the Blue Line has been violated numerous time, leading to new hostilities in 2006 when Hezbollah launched several rockets into Israel, changing the context in which UNIFIL operated dramatically.With resolution 1701 (2006), the Security Council called for a full cessation of hostilities and a comprehensive solution to the crisis expanding the mandate and changing rules of engagement. The changed rules of engagement allows the troops to open fire in specific cases (self-defence and protection of civilians, UN personnel and facilities). The resolution states that UNIFIL "can take all the necessary action in areas of deployment of forces, and as it deems. Both Hezbollah and Israel have criticised UNIFIL. Israel is concerned of the continuing dialogue with Hezbollah, a terrorist organization, and views their violations of the ceasefire as less severe than the violations of Hezbollah. Israel furthermore criticized UNIFIL for openly informing the public about movement and deployment of Israeli troops, therewith endangering them, while not doing so for the Hezbollah. Hezbollah on the other hand have accused UNIFIL of siding with Israel, especially since the passing of Resolution 1701 in 2006.
Overview of the Collection:
|2||UNMIL Part 1|
|3||UNMIL Part 2|
|4||UNMIL Part 3|